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Part One (30 points each for a total of 60 points): Short Answer. Choose two of the questions below and respond. Your answer should be about 200 words long and should draw ONLY upon the readings and lectures from this course.
1. In 1844, Samuel Morse sent the first telegraphic message from Washington D.C. to Baltimore, relaying the question, “What hath God wrought?” The answer, we understand now, was a communications and commercial revolution as monumental as the industrial revolution. Describe the 19th and early 20th c. technological and geological developments that, along with the telegraph, served to “shrink” the world and to radically accelerate global exchange. What role did these changes play in the commencement of world war in 1914 and in the scale of its devastation?
2. In January 1918, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson called for “self-determination” for all nations and global peace through a League of Nations. Did the Paris Peace Conference of 1919-20 achieve these goals? Explain. Choose one of the following nations and describe its response to the Paris settlement: Egypt, India, China, or Korea.
3. The period of global warfare that began in 1914 arguably never ended but instead transformed into a “cold war” in a newly divided Europe, with “hot wars” confined to its former colonies. How did World War Two give rise to this transformation and irrevocably change the nature of war? Describe the organizational and ideological differences between the two “sides” in the “Cold War.” How did Algeria and Vietnam become “proxies” for the conflicts between the East and the West?
Part Two (40 points): Short Essay. Develop the argument below in a clear, intelligible, and persuasive form. Your essay should be about 450-500 words and should use ONLY the materials and lectures assigned in this course.
After two catastrophic world wars, the Western belief in progress was shaken. The growth of global economic inequality, environmental destruction, and nuclear proliferation in the 20th and 21st centuries have only deepened the doubt that the West is a model for the rest of the world to follow. Choose one of the time periods below. Make an argument that the technological, economic, and political events of the period you choose challenges the claim that history is a story of progress.
1869-1914 1914-1920 1920-1937
1937-1945 1945-1975 1975-2020
I. There is no World History, Only World Histories
• All human cultures have history.
• Those histories change as the culture changes.
• A world history that included everything that happened would as useless as a map that
included everything on Earth.
II. Histories are produced by cultures based on:
• Self- Awareness
• Shared Purpose
III. This course will show that:
• We are aware of ourselves as a global community due to historical processes that began in the
• The global scale of contemporary challenges gives us a shared purpose.
I. The Americas
A. The Aztec Empire, 1325-1519
- Los Mexicas.
B. The Inca Empire, 1400-1532
- Manchu Pichu
II. Maritime Empires of South and East Asia
A. Mughal India
- Nur Jahan and Emperor Akbar
B. Ming China
- Examination System
- Forbidden City, Beijing
C. Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
- Han’ gul System in Korea
- Tokugawa Shogunate
III. Land Empires of West Asia
A. Ottoman Empire
- Sultan Sulayman
- Safavid Dynasty
- Tsar (“Caesar”) Ivan III
A. Mediterranean Sea: Italian city states
B. Atlantic Ocean: Spain and Portugal
V. Theocratic World Views
I. Epistemically Shift: From theology to Scientific Faith
A. New World Challenges to Old World Religious Powers
- Copernicus, 1543.
- Galileo, 1632.
- 16th and 17th European Wars of Religion as Epistemically Battle
a. Protestant: Individual relationship to God.
b. Catholic: Hierarchy and mediated realationship to God.
B. Natural Philosophy
- Scientific Method
- Royal Societies
II. Empire and Science
A. Non-Western lands as the laboratory for the New Science.
- 18th c. Voyages of James Cook.
- Carl Linnaeus Natural Systems, 1730-1760s.
B. European limitations and assumptions shaped their observations.
- Persistence of pre-modern beliefs.
- European science dependent upon non-western knowledge.
- Europeans continues to borrow from Asian Empires.
- Technology and the “Civilizing Mission”
a. See Adas excerpt.
III. Knowledge, Efficiency and the Market
A. Rationalized Production.
- Subsistence Economies to Monoculture
The Science of Society
I. From Wise Monarch to Reasoning Individual
A. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, 1651
B. John Locke, Two Treatises on government, 1689.
C. Mary Astell, A serious Proposal to the Ladies, for the Advancement of their True and
Greatest Interest. By a lover of her sex, 1696.
a. If all Men are born Free, how is it that all Women are born Slaves?
II. 18th Century Enlightenments
A. From Natural Philosophy to Social Philosophy
B. Salon Culture in Europe
C. Intellectual Movements in non-Western Cultures.
- Confucian revival of knowledge
- Islamic doctrinal controversies
- Bengali Renaissance.
a. Ranmohan Roy, 1771-1883
III. From Divine Monarchy to Constitutional Democracy
A. Voltaire: Satiric critique of Ancien Regime.
B. Montesquieu: Separation of powers.
C. Adam Smith: Economic Science.
D. Thomas Jefferson: Equality.
E. Rousseau: The General Will.
IV. Contradictions of Liberal Democracy
A. Who is “rational”?
B. How are conflicts resolved?
C. Why is the institution of marriage and the nature of the family not subject to scientific
D. Why is the majority of the world excluded from the democratic state?
- Abolition Movement
- Women Enlightenment Philosophers
a. Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792
Revolutions in the West and
I. The Science of Society to Political Revolution
A. From Subject to Citizen
B. From faith to Reason
C. Political Power to Match Economic Power.
II. Contradictions of the Modern Liberal State
A. Who get to be a citizen?
B. Nationalism as the new religion.
C. Labor as the source of economic power.
III. Examples of Modern Political Revolutions
A. English Civil War and Revolution, 1640-1688
- Bill of Rights
B. US War of Independence, 1763-1783
- To preserve existing power, not to “revolt”.
- Declaration of Independence, 1776.
- Federated Colonies and Militias
a. George Washington
- Also the continuation of warfare between France and Britain.
- Victory followed by a conservative Constitution.
C. French Revolution, 1789-1815
- True revolution at the center of the Western world.
- Revolt of the Third Estate
a. National Assembly
b. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
c. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
- Women’s March on Versailles
a. Moving the action to Paris and the streets.
- Conservative Constitution
- Radical Revolution, 1793-1795
a. Sans Culottes
b. society of Revolutionary and Republican Women
D. The Citizen’s Army
E. Revolutionary Justice
F. From the Cult of reason to Cult of the Supreme Being.
The Ideology of Self-Determination and Nationalist Identity
I. Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
A. St. Domingue: Slaves and sugar cane
B. “Whites,” gens de couleur, slaves.
C. 1790: Liberty equality, fraternity for Haiti
D. 1791: Slave Rebellion
- Toussaint L’Ouverture
- Support by radical French Revolution
E. 1804: Republic of Haiti
II. Latin American Wars of Independence,1800-1824
A. Like other American revolutions, sparked by events in revolutionary Europe.
B. Simon Bolivar
C. Unified, but only against Spain
D. Mestizo, Mulattoes, Criollos: Latin America
E. Mexico, 1810-1821
III. French Revolution continues: Napoleon Bonaparte
A. Napoleonic Wars
B. Coup d’etat in the name of the Revolution
C. Revolution comes full circle:
- Emperor Napoleon I.
D. Modern Warfare.
- Fighting for nation, not sovereign.
a. Military conscription
- Rationalized and centralized administration
a. Road building, standardized unit, and terms,
b. The Civil Code, 1804
- Commercialized warfare
a. The Continental System
E. Continental Army sows the seeds of nationalism
- Germany: Confederation of the Rhine
- Italy: The Carbonari.
- Latin America: French conquest of Spain
- Britain made stronger by the Continental System.
- Russian military disaster, 1812.
- Battle of Waterloo, 1815
II. Congress of Vienna
A. Restoration of dynastic families
- Balance of power.
B. Agreement of mutual protection gains revolution
- Ideal and language of freedom, equality, and fraternity persists.
IV. Individual and National Liberty
A. Unlimited in theory
B. Contested in practice
Carbon Energy and Global Commerceh
I. Traditional view of the “Industrial Revolution”:
A. Sudden explosion of mechanical invention by individual men with no help from the state.
B. Happened first in Britain and then replicated throughout the West.
C. Created wealth and progress for all.
II. New way to see this period:
A. Slow, overlapping, and discontinuous evolution that required wealth derived from the
B. Cooperation and assistance from state was essential.
C. Machines initially less important to economic growth than traditional labor-based
D. Long-term effects include a widening of the gap between the rich and the poor and
catastrophic damage to the environment. The beginning of the Anthropocene.
III. First Stages
A. Wealth and nutritious food from Americas
B. Agricultural revolution.
C. Growth in global commerce
- Shipping, Finance, Insurance, Merchants
D. Availability of cotton from America, Turkey, India.
E. Growing demand
IV. Third big stage in human energy use:
A. Domestication of fire.
B. Domestication of plants and animals
C. Animate to inanimate: Carbon fueled steam to do work
A. Steam Engine I (Newcomen, 1712)
B. Steam Engine II (James Watt, 1765)
C. Spinning Mule (Samuel Compton, 1775)
D. Steam Factory Production (Josiah Wedgwood, 1782)
E. Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney, 1793)
IV. Steam and transportation
A. Steamboat (Robert Fulton, 1807)
B. Railroad (“The Rocket,” 1829)
VII. Coal and Mining
A. Family/Child Labour
B. 12 hours, 7 days
C. Extremely dangerous
VIII. The Anthropocene
Carbon Energy, Urbanization and Modern Family
B. Asian Markets
A. Patents and legal prohibitions
C. Industrial discipline
D. Control over imperial lands and labour
E. Customer, especially for military
A. Subsistence Economy to Money Economy
1.Mode of human economy until modern period.
a. Remains dominant in non-Western world until 20th c.
- Produce to consume
- diverse agriculture
- Family/village based
- No concept of “work”. Life is work.
C. Cash/Commercial Economy:
- Humans can subsist with only a minority engaged in food production
- Produce for market, with cash as form of exchange
- Monoculture/Specialized skills.
- Separation of home from work. Individual wage earners.
- Binary social categories:
a. Work time/ “Free” time
b. Cash Exchange/ Use
c. Individual Work/ Family Work
d. Workplace/ Home
e. Work/ Chores
f. Adults/ Children
g. Men Women
D. Rural to Urban
- Agricultural Revolution
a. Enclosure Movement
b. Role of State
a. Criminal Law
b. Standards for size, quality
c. Military needs
c. From subsistence economies and local markets to cash economies and global trade.
E. 19th c. Abolition of serfdom in Eastern Europe and Russia
- 1763: Prussia
- 1781: Austrian Empire
- 1861: Russian Empire
F. Population Growth
G. Urban Conditions
- Poverty and its effects now visible
- Density and lack of sewage systems
Responses to Industrialization and The Modern Family
I. Responses to Industrialization
a. Vast movement of Europeans all over the world.
b. Eg.: The Irish Potato Famine, 1845-1852
- Subsistence Riots
- Labor Movements
B. Middle Class
II. The Family and Gender
A. “Work” no longer goes in the home
B. The home becomes a “haven” presided over by “angels” : women.
C. Origins of the “breadwinner”
D. Descriptive of few, but prescriptive for all
- Almost all women continue to work
a. But their labour not considered to be”work”.
b. Women’s work made harder by the conditions of urban life
- Throughout the 19th c, the largest sector of the western economy, other agriculture, is
domestic service, and almost entirely female occupation.
Mid-Century Revolts and Civil Wars
I. Contradictions of the 19th century state and empire
C, Global capitalism and imperialism
- Restored Monarchy
- Second Republic
- Second Empire
C. Austrian Empire
- Dual Monarchy, 1867
- Chartist Movement
- Reform Acts: 1832,1867,1884
III. The United States Civil War
- National unification
- Industrial warfare
IV. The Rights of Women: 1848
A. Les Femmes Libres
B. Seneca Falls
V. Tapping Rebellion
A. Christian missionaries and despair in the countryside
B. Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace
C. Anti-Manchu (Qing)
D. Western military aid
VI. India’s First War of Independence (Sepoy Rebellion, Indian Mutiny)
A. British East Indies Company
B. Christian missionaries in diverse India
C. End of Mughal Dynasty
D. Beginning of British Raj
VII. Revolts by Indigenous and African Americans
A. Yucatán Rebellion, 1847 and beyond
B. Métis Rebellion, 1867,1885
C. Mordant Bay, 1865
- British violence
The Second “Industrial Revolution”
I. “Second Industrial Revolution”
A. Most of the world never went through the “first”.
B. Shift in power from Britain to Germany and the US
C. Speed and Virtual Reality
- Power Transmission
a. Telephone, 1876.
I. 1844: Baltimore to Washington D.C
II. Transatlantic: 1869
III. Trans-Pacific, 1902
d. Wireless Telegraphy (radio), 1985
- Electric Trolleys and Trains
- Individual speed: bicycles
- Vertical cities
- Consumer Products
- Carbon Energy better than coal
- Motor Cars
II. Mass Consumption and Culture
A. Advertising and Print Culture
B. Health and Eugenics
C. Mass Entertainment
Carbon Energy and Global Commerce
A. Mass, carbon-based production vastly increases the number of goods
B. Same forces lower their price
C. Cheap iron, steel, pesticides, fertilizer increases agricultural yield which is shipped around
D. Telegraphs allow price comparison and quicker market transactions
II. Rapid Global Movement
A. Carbon-based water travel
- Steamships, coal then oil
- Atlantic first crossed by steam in 1838, Pacific by 1853
- Time to cross Atlantic:
a. In 1492 (sail): over 2 months
b. In 1900 (steam): about 5 days
B. Carbon-based land travel
a. By 1880s, Western built and financed railroads all over the world
b. Increasing speed
C. Urban railroads
I. Usually electric with coal-fired generators
d. Refrigerated railroad cars
- Motor Cars
a. Individual Mobility
b. Traffic Chaos
C. Carbon-based air travel
- All powerful humans!
III. Shrinking of the Globe
A. The annihilation of time and space
B. The Suez Canal, completed 1869
C. American “Manifest Destiny”
- Transcontinental Railroad, completed 1869
D. Panama Canal
- British, French, American rivalry
- About 30000 workers died
- Completed 1914.
E. Tran Siberian Railway
- 9,289 km, Longest rail line in the world
- Completed 1916
Global Commerce and Imperialism
IV. Imperial Commerce
A. Source of raw materials and captive markets
B. Non-Western World “de-industrialized”
C. Accelerated transit and information makes conquest and control easier
- Compare earlier agrarian empires
D. Cheap and abundant food for the West; Famine for the East.
- Global famines: 1875-1878, 1896-1902, 1907, 1911
E. Modern state power required to industrialize
- Example: Egyptian cotton industry
F. Western view of imperial capitalism
Modern Global History
Nature of History
Is There a global community today?
Where should its Story begin and why?
The Atlantic Slave Trade
A. key to European wealth
B. Originally centered in the topics: sugar cane
C. Impact to Africa
D. Mass production for a mass market
Global Commerce: 15th – 18th c.
A. Europeans: Violent Sailors
B. Market advantages of American conquest
C. Global Political Conquest
- Example: Fall of Ming Dynasty
- Example: European Protestant Revolution and Wars of Religion
Empires and Modern Science
Theology to Empiricism
Wars of Religion
Europeans depended upon non-European environments as laboratories and non- Europeans
Science and the economy
Political Revolutions in the West
The “Science of society” and the development of modern liberal theory
The contradictions of the liberal state
Examples in Europe and the Americas
Role of French Revolution the Napoleonic Wars
Nationalism as a form of religion
New Way of Seeing the “Industrial Revolution”
Steam engines: coal and iron
Electricity, Steel, Chemicals, Oil
From subsistence to cash to cities
Changes in ways of understanding the world and the family
Global Commerce: 19th and early 20th c.
The Great Acceleration
The Shrinking of the globe
Imperial extractions and forced consumption
The New Imperialism
I. Imperialism changes as world shrinks
A. Compare with pre-industrial imperialism
- “Colonization” v. Imperialism
- New Imperialism is mostly in the “Old World”
a. Eradication not possible
b. Continued power of old agrarian empires
C. Western empire does continue to expand in Americas
- Competition for habitat
a. Darwin and evolutionary theory
I. Counter to liberal theory
b. Social Darwinism
B. Types of Empire
a. Example: India under the British
I. Though some princely state retain “Sovereignty” as protectorates
b. Example: Niger River under the British
a. Egypt under British
- Less visible rule the best for colonizers, but hard to maintain
a. Considered as one empire, Western empire at the height of New Imperialism Largest in
b. Britain alone had imperial control over more Thant 25% of world’s land surface
B. New Technologies
- Carbon based machinery and transit
- Industrial weapons
C, New demand for tropical products
- Rubber, palm oil, ivory, lumber, coffee
D. Growing demand for captive markets
- Products of 2nd Industrial Revolution
E. As always: Scientific quests and religious Missions
III. Empire as nationalist cause
A. New need to appease the masses
IV. Bringing the empire home
A. Mass press, advertising
VI. Imperial exchange
A. Not equal, but a two-way street
B. Westernizing movements in the East; “ Orientalism” in the West.
VII. Western critics of empire
A. J.A. Hobson
VIII. Pre-industrial colonies into imperial land grabbers
C. United States
- Also overseas imperialist after Spanish American War of 1898
The New Imperialism and East Asia
I. China, 1842-1911
- Qing Dynasty
- McCartney Mission
B. Opium War and the Treaty of Nanking
- “Free Trade”
- Hong Kong
C. Self-Strengthening Movement
- Response to defeat
- Blend of East and West
a. Led by politicians like Li HongZhang
D. Tailing Rebellion/Civil War
- Cultural and economic disruptions brought by Western market penetration
- Leader of rebellion claimed to be brother of Christ; syncretic millenarian ideology
inspired the rebels
- Qing leaders like Li HongZhang turned to West for assistance in putting down the
rebellion, which led to further Western market penetration and disruption
- Catastrophic death toll, estimated between 20-70 million
E. Mass emigration of Chinese, especially to the Americas
- Made possible by accelerated transit
- Chinese labor in building railroads and mines made further accelerated transit possible.
F. Western opium trade continues to grow
- Throughout Asia
- Throughout world
G. Famines in 1870s and 1890s
- Caused by the combination of severe weather and the abrupt change from subsistence to
- Global market in agricultural commodities drew what grain was produced in China to
higher paying buyers in the West
- Estimated losses of between 10 and 30 million
H. Increased cotton cultivation for export to manufacturing countries
- Led to decline of China’s peasant-based, hand-manufactured textile economy
I. Further market penetration through “free trade” treaty ports
- Example: Germans in Shandong Province, with its capital in Tsingtao.
J. Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95
- Humiliating defeat by Japan
- Treaty of Shimonoseki gave Japan control of Taiwan, and de facto control of Korea.
K. Boxer Rebellion, 1900
- Nationalist students led rebellion against Qing rulers and against foreign presence in
a. Once again, the Qing call upon the West (and Japan) to defend it from internal
rebellion, further weakening the dynasty’s powers.
b. International coalition (“Eight Nation Alliance”) deployed to Beijing and succeeded in
suppressing revolt, publicly executing thousands of rebels
L. Revolution, 1911
- Moderate, Western-educated Sun Yat-sen and other modernizing nationalists overthrew
the Qing Dynasty and declared the Republic of China
- Unlike the leaders of the Taiping or the Boxers, the Nationalists did not resist Western
economic and cultural presence
- Disunity among the nationalists splintered the Republic, and kept China internally divided
until the invasion by Japan in 1937.
II. Japan, 1853-1910
- “Dutch Learning”
B. 1853: U.S. expedition led by Admiral Perry
Used industrialized weaponry to forcibly “open” Japan to free trade.
- American penetration was limited, especially after the onset of the US civil War.
C. 1868: Partly as a response to Western threat, modernizing forces overthrew the Tokugawa
Shogunate and restored the Meiji Emperor as a figurehead leader. Rapid educational, military,
and economic modernization followed.
- The Japanese Constitution adopted the liberal terms of individual freedom, while
preserving the emperor and maintaining actual control in a narrow, military elite.
D. Dino-Japanese War, 1894-1895: Japan defeated China; acquired Taiwan and gained more
control of Korea
- Japanese merchants and manufacturers invested in cotton cultivation in China, Korea,
E. Russo-Japanese War, 1905.
- War between Russia and Japan over control of Manchuria (technically part of Chinese
territory). Japan decisively defeated Russia, confounding the accepted science of the time that
considered “Mongolians” (East Asians) less evolved than “Caucasians” (Russians)
- Japanese victory celebrated by many non-Western anti imperial and nationalist
F. 1910: Japan formally annexes Korea and Taiwan.
IV. India (the Raj), 1857-1914
- The Mughal Dynasty
- British East Indies Company
- The Battle of Plassey.
B. First War of Independence, 1857-58
- Opium Trade
- Soldiers of the British East Indies Co. revolted, launching a rebellion throughout India
- When the Revolution was finally suppressed, the BEIC handed over responsibility and
control of India to the British state.
C. Global capitalist market penetration, vastly accelerated by the US Civil War, turned much of
India from a subsistence, localized market based economy into a cash, export driven economy.
- South Asians became producers of raw material (including raw cotton) for export and
consumers of Western manufactured products (including cotton textiles). India “industrialized”,
- The imperial state provided infrastructure, criminal and property laws, credit systems,
and tariff protections to force traditional peasant producers into producing for Western markets.
- The conversion of subsistence lands into single product cultivation created food
insecurity for peasants, who now had to purchase their necessities with cash.
- Railroads, irrigation, and telegraph communications accelerated production and
integrated South Asians into the global market as debt-laden consumers.
- Princely states still protectorates or informal rule.
- Scale of South Asian empire
D. Late 1870s and late 1890s: Global drought and famine led to deaths of millions, especially
- Same catastrophe as in China
E. Cultural Exchange
- Indian travelers in Britain
- British travelers (and pilgrims and radicals in India)
F. Resistance and Accommodation
- 1885: Indian National Congress formed to demand equal treatment within the British
Empire. Will eventually call for independence
- More radical demands came from nationalists like Bal Tilak
b. Hind Swaraj, 1910
- Written by Gandhi on way back to South Africa from London
- Alternative definition of “freedom”
The New Imperialism and Southeast Asia
A. Asian trade routes
B. Entry by Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch in 16th c
- Malacca straits
II. Dutch East Indies
A. DEIC: Military force
B. But limited control until 19th c.
C. Headquarters: Batavia (Jakarta)
- Early global city.
D. Slave-based plantation economy.
E. Dutch expansion of territory and control with technology and markets of New Imperialism.
a. Opium trade.
E. Cultural exchange
F. Imperial gender relations
- Male Servants
- Mixed Families
- Nationalist movements, though illegal, established throughout Southeast Asia by the late
- Challenges of “nationalism” in the Indonesian archipelago.
III. The Philippines
- Spanish Galleon
B. Spanish American War, 1898
- Spanish rule overthrown with the assistance of US.
C. US claims Philippines as its protectorate
- Suppresses the Philippines nationalist forces in a violent counter-insurgence war.
IV. French Indochina
A. French expand into Annan in the mid-19th c.
B. French Indochina
- Vietnam, 1887
- Cambodia and Laos, 1897 C. Politics of race
V. Siam (Thailand)
A. Remains “independent” as a buffer between British and French empires.
The New Imperialism and Africa
A. Agrarian empires
B. Trans Sahara Trade
C. Pastoral and Hunter/Gathering Societies
II. Second Industrial Revolution makes interior accessible to West
A. King Leopold in the Congo
III. The Berlin Conference, 1884-85.
A. The “Scramble for Africa”.
IV. British in Africa
- Cape Colony
B. British South Africa Company, 1889
- Cecil Rhodes
C. Commerce, Christianity, Civilization
- Battle of Omdurman, 1898
- Defeat of the Asante, 1900
- Uganda, 1900
D. Bringing the Empire home
- Cleanliness and Civilization
- Advertising the Empire
E. Boer War,1899-1902
- British mining interests versus Boer farmers
- Insurgency War
- Response in Europe
- Union of South Africa, 1910
V. Italians in Africa, 1880s-1914
A. Italian Somaliland and Eritrea
- Geopolitical arrangement with Britain
B. Battle of Adowa, 1896
VI. King Leopold/Belgium in Africa, 1850-1914
A. International African Geographic Conference, Brussels, 1876
B. Berlin Conference, 1884: Congo Free State
C. “Free” Labour: Rubber and Ivory
D. International Humanitarian Campaign
- Alice Seeley Harris
- Edmund Morel
- Joseph Conrad
E. Belgian Congo, 1908
A. German interest developed cotton cultivation in these areas, with varying degrees of
C. Herero Resistance and Reprisal
The Great War
I. Alternative View: The Great War of Western Self-Destruction, 1914-1945
A. WWI: c. 10 m. Military, c. 6-10 m. Civilian.
B. Global Influenza Pandemic: c. 30-75 million
C. WWII.: c. 25-30 m. Military, c. 60-75m. Civilian
E. Atomic destruction
II. Road to World War One
A. Competition in a Shrinkng Space
B. Militarized Nation/Empires
C. Alliance System
- Triple Alliance (Central Powers)
- Triple Entente (Allied Powers)
D. 20th century Mobilization: Speed
III. European War becomes World War
A. Japan, Ottoman Empire.
B. Colonial Possession Mobilized
- Colonial Soldiers
- Colonial Workers
- Colonial subjects at war with each other.
C. 1917: China and United States join
- Carbon-fueled killing and new weapons
- Accelerated communications
- Officers trained in pre-industrial warfare
I. Total War
A. New Weapons of War
B. Integrated Global Economy
C. Propaganda and the “home front”
II. World War and the Paris Peace.
III. “Enemy of my enemy is my friend” Imperial Politics in Wartime
A. Attempts to incite imperial revolt on both sides
B. British contradictory promises in Southwestern Asia.
- To Arabs under Faisal bin Hussein.
- To France: Sykes-Picot Agreement.
- To Zionists in the Balfour Agreement, 1917
IV. “Only the War is winning”
A. Revolts on both “Fronts”
B. Bolshevik take-over, October 1917
C. US troops arrive in spring of 1918
D. Armistice, Nov. 1918
V. The Peace to End All Peace
A. End to German, Austria-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires (and Russian through revolution).
B. “Self-determination” and European empire.
VI. The Wilsonian Moment
A. Fourteen Points
B. Make the World Safe for Democracy
D. Global Communication
VII. The Paris Peace Conference, 1919-1920
A. The “international community.”
B. Groups seeking “self-determination” come from all over the world.
IX. “Self-Determination” for Europeans
A. New states are created out of the remnants of the German and Austro-Hungarian empires
- Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
I. 1917: Mutiny and Revolution
A. Mutinies, protests, strikes throughout Europe
A. February, 1917
- International Women’s Day
- St. Petersburg: women march for bread and an end to the war.
- The tsar is forced to abdicate
- Liberal provisional government is formed
a. Doesn’t take Russia out of the war.
A. The radical socialist party (the “Bolsheviks”)
B. Bolsheviks make peace with Germany
- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1917
- Territory in Eastern Europe lost
- Allies organize to overthrow the Bolsheviks
IV. Postwar Revolutions in Europe
a. Rosa Luxembourg
b. Weimar Republic
V. Russian Civil War, 1918-1922
A. Centralizing power in the Bolsheviks
B. Famine in the Ukraine
C. Upon victory, Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR) formed.
VI. Reorganization of society
A. Appropriation of land, capital
B. Literacy campaign, health care, other social measures
C. Women as worker and “comrades.”
D. Lenin and the New Economic Policy
E. Lenin dies in 1924
F. Joseph Stalin
VII. Stalinist Russia
A. The Politburo
B. collectivization, 1929-1933
C. Rapid Industrialization: Five Year Plans beginning in 1928
Contradictions of the “International Community”
I. The Paris Peace
A. Self-Rule for European Nations
B. Continued Imperial Rule for the Rest
- No independence for the colonies of the victors
- Mandate System for the colonies of the defeated
a. To be held in “sacred trust” for civilization
b. The Treaty delivers to France and Britain the former Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia
II. International Law
A. The League of Nations
- Article 22: The Mandate System
- Three levels depending upon degree of development (“civilization”).
a. Class A
I. Former Ottoman territories
b. Class B:
i. Some of the former German-ruled African colonies
c. Class C:
i. The rest of Germany’s African
Colonies and those in Oceania.
II. Reaction and Resistance
A. Rejection of West’s claim of “Family of Nations”
B. Ho Chi Minh
a. Indian National Congress
- Zaghloul and the Wafd Party
C. Arab Lands
- Faisal and the Class A Mandate
a. Sino-Japanese War, 1894
b. Japan and the WEst
c. Korean Leaders abroad
- Korean Declaration of Independence, 1919
- March First Movement
a. Reversal of Fortune
b. Formally treated as equal
c. In fact, informal control over economy, politics.
d. Republic of China, 1912
a. Believes in Wilson’s stated purposes
b. Joins Allies in 1917
c. kang you wei
a. China seated as a “minor power.”
b. Unequal treaties remain
d. China walks out of Conference
Cultural Crisis in the West
I. The Challenge to the Modern Faith in Reason
A. From Empiricism to Relativism
B. Doubt in the rational individual develops in late 19th c. And is confirmed by the irrationality
of the War.
II. Scientific Revolution II
A. Physics: From Rational to Random
a. Marie Sklodowska
- Subatomic Theory
a. Albert Einstein
ii. Mass and energy equivalence
b. Max Planck
c. Werner Heisenberg
i. Uncertainty Principle
- Global Scientific Community
a. But not by the mid-1930s
B. Medicine: From Body to Mind
- New treatments of the late 19th c. Treatment
a. Pavlov: conditioned responses, not deliberate
b. Le Bon: Herd behavior
- Sit under Freud
a. The powers of the unconscious
I. childhood experiences (Oedipal complex)
II. Dreams, jokes, “Freudian slips.”
b. The divided self
I. I’d, ego and superego
c. Civilization and its Discontents, 1930
I. Irrational group behavior
II. Erotic attachment to charismatic figures
d. Therapy (psychoanalysis) but no “cure”
III. Modernist Art
A. Visual Arts: From Realist to Surrealist
A. Monet, Renoir, Degas, Cassatt
a. Van Gogh, Munch
a. Cezanne, Picasso, Matisse
a. Tamara, Duchamp, Magritte
- Lathe Kollwitz
B. Music: From Classical Formalism to Atonal improvisation
a. Debussy, Ravel
a. American music
C. Literature: From Plot to Stream of Consciousness
- James Joyce, Ulysses, 1992
- Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway, 1927
IV. Moving Pictures
Interwar Years: Anti-Colonial Nationalism
I. The New International Order
A. Sovereign equals for the West
B. “Family” of nations for the rest
A. Amritsar, 1919
- Rowlatt Bills
B. Indian National Congress
- Swadeshi to Satyagraha
- M.N. Roy
- Indian Communist Party
A. Ward Party and Zaghlul
B. Continued occupation by Britain
C. Revolution, 1919
- Violently suppressed
- Resistance continues
D. Kingdom of Egypt, 1922
A. May 4th Movement
- Against both Japan and the United States
- Rejection of Western path to self-rule
- Nationalist ideals extend beyond the coasts
V. Arab lands of Ottoman Empire
A. British and French Mandates
B. Franco-Syrian War, 1920
- Arab Kingdom of Syria
- New states of Lebanon and Syria
- 1920 Revolution (or “Revolt”)
- British reprisal with aerial warfare and Indian troops
VI. Cairo Conference, 1921
- New states
I. Faisal, king of Iraq
- British support for a Jewish homeland
- Arab Revolt, 1936
The Interwar Years: Capitalist Economic Collapse
A. Liberal Ideal of the Free Market
B. Second Industrial Revolution
- Global free market in goods and people
a. But also coerced labor and consumption
- Organized capitalism
C. total War
- Command Economies
II. Defeated Powers
A. Division, War, and Displacement
i. External and Internal Migration
- Blockade: Hunger
- Division, War and Displacement
III. Non-Western World
A. Collapse of Commodity Prices
IV. European victors
A. Economic hardship through interwar period.
V. United States: Postwar economic opportunity
A. Lender to devastated Europe
B. Consumer empire
C. Agricultural Depression
VI. Global Market Collapse (1929-1933)
- Over-dependence on US
- Speculation, especially in real estate
- Consumer credit
B. October, 1929
- US Stock market crash
- Loans called
C. Unprecedented Unemployment
C. Government Response
a. Frederick Hayek
b. Stanley Baldwin
c. Herbert Hoover
D. Capitalism and the state
- Imperial and industrial partners
- John Maynard Keynes
a. Advanced capitalism requires strong states and planned economies
b. Public investment and welfare
c. Deficit spending
d. Economic nationalism
e. Monetary control
- Keynesian economics not fully accepted until after WW2
VII. Political Repercussions of Economic Collapse
A. Liberal democracy?
B. Soviet Alternative
C. Fascist Alternative
- Not hesitant to employ economic nationalism and public expenditure
- Trains “running on time” and the Autobahn.
- Growing support for authoritarianism in liberal states
- Germany’s incorporated states dependent on German economy.
Interwar Authoritarianism: Italian Fascism
I. Conditions for interwar fascism
B. Red Scare
C. Resentment over the Paris treaties
D. Ruling class afraid of revolution
II. Characteristics of interwar authoritarianism
A. Reliance on mass media and mass spectacle
B. Critical of democratic powers
C. Strong executive powers.
D. Traditional gender culture and pro-natalism
III. Italian Fascism
A. Benito Mussolini
- Veteran of World War I
B. 1919: The Fascist (from Roman “fasci”) Party
- Black Shirts
C. 1922: Mussolini appointed Prime Minister
D. Effectively replaces Italian democracy with a police state
E. Corporate Economy
F. Cultural Control
G. Public projects
H. Cult of “II Duce”
- Mussolini as the embodiment of all the people
- The national “lover” for women
- The defender of masculinity for men
I. Gender as metaphor for fascist aims
IV. Thomas Mann and Mario and the Magician (Exercise 4 notes)
• The row with the people on the beach
• The departure of most of the guests at the hotel
• Cipolla’s frequent departure from the stage to be with the audience
• Cipolla’s use of a whip
• The author’s inability to leave the performance
• His tricks with Senora and Senor Angolieri
• The role of Silvestra
• Mario’s kiss
Nazi Germany and Stalinism
I. Postwar Germany
A. Revolution and repression
B. Treaty of Versailles
- Loss of territory
- War guilt
II. Weimar Republic
- Enfranchisement of women
- American loans and membership in the League of Nations
- Modernist art and lifestyle
III. 1919: National Socialist German Worker’s Party (“Nazi”)
A. Adolf Hitler
B. Munich and Mein Kampf
C. “Brown shirts”
IV. 1929 and global depression
A. Weimar “decadence”
B. Nazi Party and the Reichstag election of 1932
C. Hitler appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg, January 1933
V. From Republic to Reich
A. Reichstag Fire
B. Enabling Act
C. Police State
- S.S. (Protection Squadorn)
VI. Mass Mobilization
A. Economic recovery
B. Territorial recovery
C. Mass media and spectacle
a. People’s Radios
c. Book burnings
d. Nazi Youth
e. Gender Politics
B. Scientific racism
- Genetics to Eugenics
- Pro-Natalia for “Aryans”
- Forced sterilization for undesirables
C. Unity around a common enemy
- Nuremberg laws, 1935
- Kristallnacht, 2938
VII. Stalinist Terror
- Single Party rule
- Collectivization, Industrialization
B. Political Purges (the “Great Terror”)
Collapse of the League of Nations and the International Order
I. League of Nations Structure and Power
- All independent (“civilized”) states
a. Notes: US chose not to join
- Any member can leave at any time
- Substantive decisions required unanimity
C. Enforcement Powers
- Military action
a. By non-binding vote
- Economic sanctions
a. By non-binding vote
- Trial by the Permanent Court of International Justice
a. But only if the member has submitted to the jurisdiction of the Court
b. Right of self-defense
II. New International Order violated from the start
A. 1923. France and Belgium occupation of the Ruhr Valley
B. 1923. Italian occupation of Corfu
C. Separate treaties duplicating League of Nations
- 1925 Treaty of Locarno
- 1925 Geneva Protocol
- 1928 Kellogg-Brian’s Pact
D. 1931: Japanese invasion of Manchuria
- Japan rejects League’s order to leave
- Creates new state of Manchukuo
- 1933: Japan withdraws from the League
E. Italian invasion of Ethiopia
- Italian incursions begin in the 1930s
a. From Eritrea and Somaliland
- December 1934 attack
a. Emperor Selassie call on the League
- League decision exonerates Italy
- October 1935: Italy invades
a. Aerial bombardment
b. Chemical weapons
- League imposes economic sanctions on Italy
- May 1936: Selassie flees and delivers speech in Geneva
- Italian East Africa
- 1937: Italy leaves the League
F. Spanish Civil War
- July 1936: Military coup led by Gen. Franco against the Republic of Spain
- Germany and Italy provide arms, money and soldiers in support of Franco
- League refuses assistance because it’s a “domestic” conflict.
- Revolutionary Republic
- International Brigades
- Aerial Bombardment
- February 1939: Britain and France recognize the Franco government
World War Resumed
I. Perspectives on 1918-1945
• 1914-1945: Bloodletting never stops
• War of Ideology begins in 1917: Red Scare through Cold War
• World Safe for Democracy? Rise of Authoritarian Governments
• Role of Global Capitalist collapse (Great Depression)
• Mass Culture and challenge to Western Faith in Reason
• The limits to International Law
• The volatility of the ideal of national self-determination
- World War One
- Paris Peace, especially Treaty of Versailles
- Ineffective League of Nations
- Economic Collapse leading to political extremism
- Violent nationalism and modern ideologies
III. East Asian War: 1937-1945
- 7/1937: Japan invades China
- 11/1937: Shanghai falls
- 12/1937: Nanjing falls
- 10/1938: Japan seizes Guangzhou and other ports
- War, not only an invasion, with some Chinese victories
- Aerial bombardment and other terror tactics
II. European War, 1939-1945
A. League of NAtions crumbles
B. Popular Front, including USSR
- Disdain for international order
a. 1933: Withdraws from League of Nations
- 1936: Remilitarization of the Rhineland
- 3/1938: Annexes Austria
- 9/1938: Munich Conference
a. Germany is given control of the Sudetenland
- 3/1939: Germany seizes the rest of Czechoslovakia
D. 8/1939: Nazi/Soviet Pact
III. European War resumes
A. 9/1939: Invasion of Poland
- By Germany from the west
- By USSR from the east
B. By the summer of 1940
- Germany has taken Western Poland, Denmark, Holland, Belgium and France
a. Vichy France
2.USSR has taken Easter Poland, Finland, and the Baltic states
- Italy has joined the war as an ally of Germany
- Germany, Italy, and Japan enter the Tripartite Pact (“Axis”)
C. 8/1940-5/1941: Battle of Britain
D. 6/1941: German invasion of Russia (Operation Barbarossa)
- Siege of Leningrad (ST. Petersburg)
World War Continues
I. Turning of the Tide
A. Operation Barbarossa
- 6/1942-5/1943: Battle of Stalingrad
B. Pearl Harbor: US enters war
C. Germany declares war on US
D. 1942-1945: Allied aerial bombing
- German cities
- Japanese cities
II. German retreat
A. Defeat at Stalingrad
B. 6/1944: Allied Invasion of Normandy
III. August 1945
A. Military Decision
B. Political Decision
C. Moral Decision
A. Rachael Lemkin
- Eg: Armenia?
C. The Shoah
- 1/1942: Wannsee Conference
- Killing Fields of Eastern Europe
- About 2/3 of Europe’s Jewish population
- The banality of evil
IV. The End
The New International Oder , The Cold War, and the End of European Empire
I. The New International Order (Part 2)
- 1941: US and Britain , Atlantic Charter
a. Additional meeting with USSR
B. Political Order: United Nations
- General Assembly
- Security Council
C. Financial World Order
- 1944: Breton Woods Conference
a. International Monetary Fund
b. World Bank
c. World Trade organization
C. Human Rights
D. Fighting Continues
- China, 1945-1949
a. People’s Republic of China
- Greece, 1945
- Arab/Israeli War, 1948-49
II. The Cold War
B. Eastern Bloc
- Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Yugoslavia
(Communist, but independent)
C. 1947: Truman Doctrine of Containment
- 1948: Confrontation
a. Blockade and airlift
- 1949: Division
a. Federal Republic of Germany
b. Democratic Republic of Germany
- 1961: Berlin Wall
E. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
- 1949: Russian nuclear capacity
a. Followed by UK, France, china, India, Pakistan
- 1949: North Atlantic Treaty Org. (NATO)
- 1955: Warsaw Pact
F. Forced allegiance and the “Third World”
- 1953: Iran
- 1956: Hungary and Guatemala
- 1961: Congo
- 1968: Czechoslovakia
- 1973: Chile
G. 1961: Cuban Missile Crisis
a. Spanish colony
b. 1989: US informal control
d. 1959: “Cuba Libre”
I. Fidel Castro, Che Guevara
- 1962: Krushchev and Kennedy
III. Decolonization: Asia
A. 1950: Republic of Indonesia
- 1965-66: Army campaign against the Communist Party of Indonesia;
- 1950: War between North Korea (China/USSR) and South Korea (UN/US)
- 1953: Hostilities cease though the war never technically ended
- Divided Korea
- 1945: Viet Minh declare national independence
- 1946-1954: First Indochinese War. French lose and a divided Vietnam is declare
- 1955-1975: Second Indochinese War. US loses. Killed 1-3.5 million Vietnamese,
- 1946: U grants independence to Republic of Philippines
a. US Military bases and political advisers remain
- Muslim League and Indian National Congress
a. Violence in 1946-47
- 1947: Independence and Partition
a. Republic of Pakistan divided by 100s of miles of Indian territory
IV. Decolonization: Africa
- 1952: Military coup d’etat ends British control
a. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser
- 1956: Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal
a. Failed attempt by Britain, France, and Israel to seize the canal
- French colony since 1830 with a large “White” presence (“les piers-noir”)
- 1954-1962: War for independence
a. Counterinsurgency tactics
b. Charles De Gaulle
c. Fifth Republic
- 1962: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
C. 1957: The Republic of Ghana
- Kwame Nkrumah
- Convention People’s Party
F. South Africa
- 1912: African National Congress
- 1960: Sharpeville massacre
- 1961: ANC banned
b. Nelson Mandela imprisoned
- International pressure
The New Global Capitalism and the Anthropocene
I. Soviet Bloc: Malaise to Break-up
A. The Failure of Success
- Brezhnev, CP Genl. Sec. 1964-1982
- Helsinki Accords, 1975
B. Glasnost and Perestroika
- Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985-1991
- Chernobyl, 1986
C. Poland: Solidarity: 1980, 1989
D. Czechoslovakia: 1989
E. Hungary: 1989
F. Romania: 1990
G. German Reunification
- Nov. 1989: Berlin Wall comes down
- 1990: Elections and united Federal Republic of Germany
H. 1991-1995: Yugoslavia breaks into six independent states
I. 1993.: Czechoslovakia breaks into two independent states
H. Dissolution of the USSR
- 1990: Baltic Republics, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia leave the USSR
- August 1991: Attempted coup and Boris Yeltsin
a. Yelstin bans the Soviet Communist Party
b. Ukraine, followed by other Soviet Republics, declares its independence
- December 1991: Commonwealth of Independent States
II. Modern Eras:
A. The long Nineteenth Century: 1789-1917
- Political REvolutions of Liberty ()French Revolution) and Equality (Russian Revolution)
B. The Short Twentieth Century: 1914-1990
- The Nation-States to the Transnational Capitalist Economy: World War One to the
collapse of the USSR
B. Asian “Tigers”
- South Korea
B. Neoliberal economic policies in the Global South
- Structural Adjustment
- Resource extraction
Industrial capitalism and inequality
Capitalist carbon energy se and environmental destruction