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Leadership can be defined as ‘‘a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal’’ (Northouse, 2004). This means here is relationship in leadership. Examples of relationally focused leadership styles include transformational leadership which motivates others to do more than they originally intended and often more than they thought possible, individualized consideration, which focuses on understanding the needs of each follower and works continuously to get them to develop to their full potential, and resonant leadership that inspires, coaches, develops and includes others even in the face of adversity (Stantou, et al., 2017). Transformational leaders use idealized influence, inspiration and motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration to achieve superior results and resonant styles are based on the emotional intelligence of the leaders (Stantou, et al., 2017). In task focused or non-relationally focused leadership styles can be categorized as management by exception, laissez-faire, transactional leadership, dissonant leadership styles, and instrumental leadership. In Active Management-by-Exception, the leadership focuses on monitoring task execution for any problems that might arise and correcting those problems to maintain current performance levels.
In laissez-faire styles, they are passive avoidance of issues, decision making and accountability and only tend to react only after problems had reaches a critical point and often avoids making any decisions at all. Passive– avoidant leadership tends to react only after problems have become serious to take corrective action, and often avoids making any decisions at all (Stantou, et al., 2017). Transactional leadership emphasize the transaction or exchange that takes place among leaders, colleagues and followers to accomplish the work (Bass and Avolio, 1994). Dissonant leadership is characterized by pacesetting and commanding styles that undermine the emotional foundations required to support and promote staff success (Goleman et al., 2002). Instrumental leadership focuses on the strategic and task-oriented developmental functions of leaders (Stantou, et al., 2017). Initiating structure referred to the degree to which leaders articulate clear role expectations, create well defined communication channels and focus on tasks and attaining goals (Judge et al., 2004).
Where I do PRN job, my director used transformational leadership style. This has made many of us to practice collective responsibility. This hospital has a high nurse-retention level because of this humane leadership.